Tanzania officially the United Republic of Tanzania is a country in Eastern Africa within the African Great Lakes region. It borders Kenya and Uganda to the north, Rwanda, Burundi, and the Democratic Republic of the Congo to the west, Zambia, Malawi, and Mozambique to the south and the Indian Ocean to the East. Mount Kilimanjaro, Africa’s highest mountain, is in north-eastern Tanzania. The country’s capital city is Dodoma with a population of 47.6 million and its composed of several ethnic, linguistic people but the major languages are English and Swahili as the national language as well as religious groups and the major ones are Christianity and Islam.
The country has a tropical climate but has regional variations due to its scenery. In the highlands, temperatures range between 10 and 20 °C (50 and 68 °F) during cold and hot seasons respectively. The rest of the country has temperatures rarely falling lower than 20 °C (68 °F). The hottest period extends between November and February (25–31 °C or 77.0–87.8 °F) while the coldest period occurs between May and August (15–20 °C or 59–68 °F). The country covers a geographical area of 945,087sqkm /364,900 sq. miles. The country is home to two renowned tourism destinations, Africa’s highest mountain, Kilimanjaro, and wildlife-rich national parks such as the Serengeti – but has become a target for poachers.
Tanzania contains some of the world’s greatest natural wonders, but due to a socialist government that more or less shunned contact with the outside world, much of it remained relatively inaccessible until the 1980s, when major reforms to its foreign tourism policies were finally implemented. Since then, Tanzania has played an impressive game of catch-up with Kenya, though it has consciously pursued a low-density, high-quality tourism policy, making it a far more exclusive (and pricey) destination than its northern neighbor. This means that Tanzania, with the exception of Zanzibar and the coast, is not a budget destination, and from park fees to lodgings, you’ll need to prepare yourself for a relatively heavy price tag.
Tanzania is mountainous and densely forested in the north-east, where Mount Kilimanjaro is located. Three of Africa’s Great Lakes are partly within Tanzania. To the north and west lie Lake Victoria, Africa’s largest lake, and Lake Tanganyika, the continent’s deepest lake, known for its unique species of fish. The eastern shore is hot and humid, with the Zanzibar Archipelago just offshore. The Kalambo water falls in the southwestern region of Rukwa are the second highest uninterrupted fall in Africa and are located near the south-eastern shore of Lake Tanganyika on the border with Zambia. The Menai Bay Conservation Area is Zanzibar’s largest marine protected area.